The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. There are no smoke-free areas … [28]. Prior to enacting the nationwide smoking ban, the Ministry of Health had already maintained active involvement in decrying the negative effects of smoking and striving toward decreased prevalence of tobacco use. So don't be scandalized if you see kids around the age of 15 smoking. For every person who dies because of smoking, at least 30 people live with a serious smoking-related illness. Serving cigarettes … [24] The ban had a generally strong impact, with poll results suggesting that a majority of Chinese residents (69% out of over 10000 respondents) are "not only aware of a smoking ban in Beijing, but [95% of respondents] also hope that the authorities promote the move nationwide. 4. Smoking deaths in China are set to triple to 3 million a year by 2050, according to a new study that examines the devastating toll of rising smoking rates on the country’s male population. We should do the same, at least during the Expo, since it is a cosmopolitan event. It has an estimated 350 million smokers — that's 1 in 3 of the world's smokers. China is home to some 300m smokers, more than any other country; about half of men are regular smokers. [14] The Ministry's "Decision" formally requests local governmental units to "set up multi-agency FCTC Implementation Leading Small Groups"[5] to assist with regional strategies of enforcement, with the explicit goal that: "by the year 2010, all health administration offices, both military and non-military, and at least 50% of all medical and health institutions should become smoke-free units, so that the goal of a total smoking ban in all health administration offices and medical and health institutions can be fulfilled by 2011. Smoking bans in lifts, public transport, cinemas, concert halls, airport terminal and escalators had been phased in between 1982 and 1997. Contact, China has the largest number of obese children in the world, study says, For China’s Growing Middle Class, Expanding Waistlines Pose Problem, China Not Doing Enough to Stub out Smoking, Chinese Manufacturing | Fascinating Facts & Figures, Facts about China: CRIME, HUMAN RIGHTS & SUICIDE, Total population: 76.4 years (#51 world ranking). In order to maintain a robust, sustainable effort in tobacco control, China will particularly need to focus upon the role of public health education in smoking prevention and health promotion. [17] In addition, the cultural basis of smoking in China presents a significant barrier to de facto acceptance and integration of smoking control policies. However, by March 2010, the Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress prepared to lift the smoking ban in work places, including offices, conference rooms and auditoriums. The number of worldwide smokers hovers around 1.2 billion marks. Cultural norms from China persist in the city because many Chinese residents are foreign-born, she said: “Sixty percent of men there smoke, while there is a stigma to women smoking.” Furthermore, smoking can be considered a personal matter that should not be relevant to the workplace. The most important one is lung cancer, which was newly diagnosed in nearly 800,000 patients in China in 2018. Public health experts agree that it will be difficult to enforce a strict ban with the large number of smokers present in Shanghai.[20]. It may be argued that as responsible and informed adults, Chinese physicians should be given the choice of whether or not to smoke. Among non-smokers, 95.1% support a total ban in all schools, 78.1% support a total ban in hospitals and over 93.8% support a ban in public transport. Among smokers, the polls found that 93.5% support a total ban on smoking in all schools, 75.5% support a total ban in hospitals, and 94.3% support a total ban in all public transport. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The facts about smoking in China are scary and getting scarier by the minute: It produces more tobacco than any other country. A physician's personal smoking habits have been shown to influence his or her attitudes toward the dangers of tobacco. The chair of my department smokes. "[15], Given the complex and multifaceted nature of political agendas in China, governmental public-health related interests often clash with economic interests. [13] From 2009, Projects sponsored by Bloomberg Initiative and directed by Yang Tingzhong were designed as the first program to prohibit all forms of smoking in University campuses in China. World J Surg 2009. [32], Smoking is such a big part of being a doctor here. "[10] Notable support also exists within the sphere of representative politics; allegedly, political advisors of the CPPCC have even gone so far as to call for smoke-free legislative sessions. Smoking in certain public places in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has been banned from 1 January 2007 under the government's revised Smoking (Public Health) Ordinance (Cap. (There … An economic motivation against physician smoking may be the societal loss that is caused by tobacco use. In fact, men are particularly at risk because cigarette use is highly gendered in … China loves to smoke, as these sobering statistics show. After the announcement was done, the ban was effective immediately.[19]. Smoking in China is prevalent, as the People's Republic of China is the world's largest consumer and producer of tobacco:[1] there are 350 million Chinese smokers,[1] and China produces 42% of the world's cigarettes. [WHO; Wikipedia “Smoking in the People’s Republic of China”] One of every three cigarettes consumed around the world is smoked in China. Smoking Is Strictly Prohibited on High-Speed Trains. And to tell you the truth, with such a pressure-filled job, smoking is extremely helpful, at times soothing, at times energizing, at times helping me focus my attention when preparing for a complex surgery or facing a stack of paperwork 10:30 at night.[32]. [26] The public places for smoking ban included restaurants, entertainment outlets, schools, supermarkets, and governmental offices. They only share a cigarette when they want to ease the nerves on a battlefield and bond as the brothers. The Beijing Municipal Government has recently vowed anti-smoking laws to ban smoking in all indoor public venues, workplace, and public transport vehicles in a new anti-smoking … The industry supports around 20 million jobs, nearly 500,000 of which … In addition, the report suggested a strong likelihood of success for the implementation of complete public smoking bans in seven major urban areas on the basis of demonstrated widespread popular support for such measures. And whenever I walk into the duty office, most of my colleagues are smoking. On October 11, 2005, China became the 78th country in the world to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international treaty intended to reduce tobacco-related disease and death. We barely see people serving cigarettes to each other in European countries or the US. As a matter of fact, in Italy it is only forbidden to smoke inside public spaces: cinemas, restaurants, clubs. [4] China does not have laws to punish health care facilities, medical workers and health officials who violate smoking bans, and is instead relying on the Chinese media to act as a watchdog. Some bars, karaoke parlors, saunas and nightclubs were exempt until 1 July 2009. Some 70.6% of non-smokers support some type of smoking ban in bars and restaurants.[11]. In 2009, the authorities of Gongan County attempted to increase consumption of locally produced cigarettes, by demanding that local officials smoke up to 23,000 packs of Hubei-branded cigarettes per year. [27] Yang Tingzhong from Zhejiang University undertook campaigns and project sponsored by Bloomberg Global Initiative to ban smoking in university campuses at a nationwide scale. [12] Wu Yiqun, vice executive director with the Beijing-based Thinktank Research Center for Health Development, criticized China's tobacco industry supervisory administration for "[failing] to oversee Chinese tobacco producers" in this aspect. Every day, more than 3,200 children and teens under 18 years old smoke their first cigarette. "[5], As polls from the 2007 Ministry of Health report showed, there is widespread public approval of smoking bans among residents of urban areas. These taglines are targeted towards bringing attention to the harmful chemicals and long term effects of smoking … An article published in 2009 interviewed a source who claimed that 60% of Chinese male doctors were smokers, a percentage higher than any other country's doctors in the world. Medical Anthropology 2008, Garfinkel L, Stellman SD. Back to the Smoking Facts… 6. China Anti-Smoking Laws Smoking Ban in the Chinese Capital to Move Forward. Mortality rates for lung cancer are disproportionately high in China, and over 75 percent of lung cancer deaths in Chinese men are attributable to smoking. Doctors who smoked were less likely to believe that smoking has a harmful effect on health compared to nonsmokers. According to Dr. Shigeru Omi, the WHO Regional Director for the Western Pacific region, "implementing the Convention will not be easy, as smoking is an ingrained habit in China ... but the Government has made clear its commitment to take action." Some have suggested that so long as a cigarette does not interfere with a physician's ability to diagnose and treat patients, smoking should be permitted among health care practitioners. [11] With an explicitly stated objective of "building smoke-free environments for the sake of enjoying healthy life",[12] the report has received strong support and praise from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, a U.S. health advocacy group based in Washington, D.C.[11]. [SUPChina, “China’s Cigarette Smoking Epidemic” September 5, 2019] More than 300 million Chinese adults smoke—among them more than half of all Chi… According to Li Zhongyang, the deputy head of the Shanghai Health Promotion Committee, the smoking ban was enacted to protect citizens' health and also promote Shanghai's image as a cosmopolitan city. [4] The Ministry said that as a "mid-term goal, all health administrations and half of the country's healthcare facilities should be smoke-free by the end of 2010". On May 20, 2009, the Ministry of Health of China issued a formal decision to completely ban smoking in all health administration offices and medical facilities by the year 2011. Tobacco control legislation does exist, but public enforcement is rare to non-existent outside the most highly internationalized cities, such as Shanghai and Beijing. Alternatively, smoking cessation advice offered by a doctor who smokes may seem hypocritical to the patient trying to quit. [9] China has also resolved to ban all tobacco vending machines,[9] as well as smoking in indoor work places, public areas, and public transportation vehicles.[10]. [2], Yang Gonghuan, deputy director of the National Center of Disease Control of China, said that progress on tobacco control is not moving quickly because the government derives large tax revenues from tobacco sales, and the industry employs a large workforce. [30] Most of them have no knowledge of the facts about smoking … In addition to passing the smoking ban, Shanghai legislators have designed a website "Smoke Free Shanghai" [23] to raise anti-smoking awareness. And of course, for the sake of the public who would be visiting." Some of them even smoke boldly in hospitals or schools.”[17] This is problematic because, regardless of whether these professionals continue to smoke out of habit, social custom, or "apparent disregard" for evidence of smoking risk, they are still expected to "behave themselves and set a good example for others in tobacco control," Li says. Although China still lags behind many countries in implementing tobacco control policy, the Ministry of Health's May 20 initiative helped to establish more unified smoking controls and codify public health authority at broad administrative levels. [21] While many interviewers found second-hand smoke itself toxic and damaging to citizen's health, a main reason behind popular support for the smoking ban relates to the citizen's concern for Shanghai's image. In 2007, Guangzhou and Jiangmen became Guangdong's first two cities for experimental enforcement of total smoking ban at some public places. 3. As a way to amend this problem, the British began exporting large … Smoking is prohibited on all Chinese High-speed trains (G, D, C types train) now. [File photo: easttobacco.com] Negative Health Effects of Smoking Chinese physicians and their smoking knowledge, attitudes and practices. We assess sex-specific prevalence and changing patterns of smoking in Chinese adults in the current decade. [citation needed], The government mentioned, upon the release of the budget in 2009, that a full ban of tobacco import and smoking is technically possible. This decision was reversed after public outcry and coverage by international press. The Chinese Association on Tobacco Control (中国控制吸烟协会 Zhōngguó kòngzhì xīyān xiéhuì) is engaged in tobacco control by members of the voluntary sector, including academic, social and mass organizations,[3] as strong enforcement of existing tobacco control laws is not supported by the Chinese Government. Methods A nationally representative survey of smoking … As a response to FCTC recommendations for reduction of access and supply-side tobacco regulation, the Ministry of Health is now targeting farmers to give up tobacco plantation and trying to “convince them that the tobacco industry can be replaced by other industries that are more healthy, sustainable and profitable.”[17], Another potential obstacle is the Chinese tobacco industry's lack of complete compliance with nationally defined policies regarding the correct presentation of warning labels on cigarette packages, which must be readily visible and cover at least 30% of the visible area of the packaging. [citation needed], Impact of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Arguments in favor of physicians' choice to smoke, Arguments against physicians' choice to smoke. In fact, Chinese physicians who smoke may be able to form closer relationships with patients because of tobacco's role in the local culture as a commodity that promotes unity and friendship. Tobacco smoking is one of the world’s largest health problems. 1. [18], On February 12, 2011, State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, announced that it will ban inappropriate smoking scenes in movies and TV shows. The seven cities are Tianjin, Chongqing, Shenyang, Harbin, Nanchang, Lanzhou and Shenzhen. The data for the United States is from the domestic Ministry of Health. [10], However, widespread apathy and tacit acceptance toward smoking policy are likely to predominate within large portions of the Chinese population. For the entire 20th century it is estimated that around 100 million people died prematurely because of smoking, most of them in rich countries. 371), first enacted in 1982 with several amendments subsequently. 36% of the population smoke, including 70% of all Chinese men. The Shanghai People's Congress issued the city's first smoking control law in March 2010. China’s smoking habits are ingrained in the population. However, there is a lack of national legislation to ban smoking in workplaces. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. The tobacco industry spends billions of dollars each year on marketing cigarettes. Over 11 per cent of 6.4 million deaths worldwide was caused by smoking in 2015 and 52.2 per cent of them took place in China, India, USA, and Russia, according to the latest estimates in the … China has its own unique cigarette culture. In addition to the May 20 measure, numerous provincial and city-level administrations in China have also enacted policies to control the prevalence and health impacts of smoking within the last decade. ", "Taxation is a very effective method of reducing tobacco use. The resources that are spent on medical school and hospital training might not be realized fully if physicians die prematurely from higher smoking rates. China’s smoking population is in for a rude awakening in light of a new study from The Lancet medical journal. 1986, WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, "The Political Mapping of China's Tobacco Industry and Anti-Smoking Campaign", "Smoke-free list extends to healthcare facilities", From 2011, Smoking Will Be Banned Completely in the Medical and Healthcare System, China To Ban Smoking In 7 Cities: Pilot Project, China Ratifies International Tobacco Treaty, Ahead of World Expo, China acts to promote smoking controls, Chinese Health Ministry Releases Landmark Anti-Smoking Report, "Special communication: China's first historic efforts to develop a tobacco control advocacy workforce via schools of public health", China relaxes smoking ban in Beijing restaurants, China moves to reduce smoking scenes on TV, Shanghai scrambles to implement ban on smoking in indoor public places ahead of World Expo, Smoking ban helps reduce fires in Beijing, Guangdong to launch stricter smoking ban at public places, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/life/2009-12/11/content_9161633.htm, "Contrasting male and female trends in tobacco-attributed mortality in China: evidence from successive nationwide prospective cohort studies", "Smoking causes 10% of deaths worldwide; even more in China", "The Chinese Government Is Getting Rich Selling Cigarettes", Cigarette Retail Trade in China Undergoes Drastic Changes, The most effective Alternative To Smoking, China Today: Health and Medicine Information, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Healthcare Security Administration, China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Smoking_in_China&oldid=992128515, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2015, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In addition to "strong social pressure placed upon Chinese men to smoke", it is also expected that female smoking will become "more socially acceptable as the tobacco industry increasingly targets female smokers. [2] Within the Chinese guanxi system, tobacco is still a ubiquitous gift acceptable on any occasion, particularly outside urban areas. A direct positive public health impact of the Beijing smoking ban has manifested in the arena of fire prevention. [4] Nearly 60% of male Chinese doctors are smokers, which is the highest proportion in the world. [12] Various health experts, activists, and public advocacy groups regard the Chinese government's escalating efforts toward tobacco policy as "surely good news for the country's smoking control progress. The new daily average [after the extended smoking ban] was less than half of what was reported in the first four months of this year, when the city's firefighters had to put out 325 fires caused by cigarette butts, or 2.7 per day.". Smoking among Doctors: Governmentality, Embodiment, and the Diversion of Blame in Contemporary China. However, given the decreasing smoking rate in recent years mainly due to increasing tobacco tax, the government currently has no further plans to control sales of tobacco other than by adjusting taxation. Jiang Y, Ong M K, Tong E K, et al. They have a slightly higher rate than Japanese physicians (20.2%) and Japanese physicians have a smaller gender discrepancy with 27% male and 7% of female doctors smoking. [20] For organizers of the Expo, there was also the issue of hypocrisy if they did not deal with China's smoking problem as part of their "Healthy Expo. The facts about smoking in China are scary and getting scarier by the minute: It produces more tobacco than any other country. Awareness of the dangers of smoking, costs, and targeted policies and campaigns have all contributed to this decrease. Dingding, Xin. Women smoked much less. However, very few smokers (5%) in the ITC China Survey reported thinking about price as a reason to quit smoking—a sign that prices are too low. In light of the passage of national tobacco initiatives and international publicity for the 2008 Summer Olympics, the Beijing city government extended a public smoking ban on May 1, 2008 to include sports venues and all indoor areas of government offices, transport stations, schools and hospitals. Tobacco use has been identified as an increasingly popular phenomenon in China, and Chinese physicians have been found to exhibit high smoking rates as well. [16] Such indeterminate enforcements of supposedly well-defined public health regulations in practice may limit the impact of de jure national smoking bans. China has a relatively low social disapproval rate of smoking—according to the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), "only 59% of smokers think that Chinese society disapproves of smoking, the fourth lowest rate of 14 ITC countries surveyed. Cigarette smoking among physicians, dentists, and nurses. 1 The health burden of smoking … - Source 2. Also, the most concrete measure that has been taken is that Expo organizers refused a 200 million yuan ($29.3 million) donation from the Shanghai Tobacco Company last year to maintain their "healthy Expo" stance. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. [1] The China National Tobacco Corporation (中国烟草总公司 Zhōngguó Yāncǎo Zǒnggōngsī) is by sales the largest single manufacturer of tobacco products in the world and boasts a monopoly in Mainland China generating between 7 and 10% of government revenue. The economic burden of smoking estimated in terms of GDP reveals that smoking accounts for approximately 0.7% of China's GDP and approximately 1% of US GDP. It has an estimated 350 million smokers — that's 1 in 3 of the world's smokers. Hangzhou's people's congress had approved to ban smoking in public and working places in the beginning of 2010; smoking may be prohibited in some places and violators may be fined up to 3000 yuan. 1-5 Smoking Facts 1. [29], High tobacco use among physicians may be attributed to several factors. Smoke-free list extends to healthcare facilities. You are … More than one third of current smokers had smoked in front of their patients and nearly all had smoked during their work shift. [34], China remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and Indonesia) in total number of male smokers, accounted for 51.4% of the world's male smokers in 2015. A 2004 study conducted among 3,500 Chinese physicians found that 23% were regular smokers. Some opponents to the smoking ban hold that smoking as a personal choice has nothing to do with public health. About one-fourth of those smokers live in China and they are the fastest rising market … Anyone caught smoking would first be given a warning and then face a fine of 50 to 200 yuan if they resist. Physicians who smoke may also have a bias that prevents them from giving accurate information regarding the negative health effects of tobacco to patients. Chinese physicians have a substantially higher smoking prevalence than doctors in the United States (3.3%) or United Kingdom (6.8%). ", Despite the popular support for the Shanghai smoking ban, many also feel skeptical about the actual implementation of the law. Background China consumes about 40% of the world's cigarettes, predominantly by men, following a large increase in recent decades. However, this opinion runs against the facts. In 2010, smoking caused nearly 1 million (840 000 male, 130 000 female) deaths in China. Tobacco use has been identified as an increasingly popular phenomenon in China, and Chinese physicians have been found to exhibit high smoking rates as well. Many believe that doctors should serve as exemplars, as sources of information about quitting, and as providers of support and encouragement for those who are trying to live healthier lives by giving up cigarettes.[33]. A massive increase in opium smoking in China was more or less directly instigated by the British trade deficit with Qing dynasty China. Current tax regulations in Chinese tobacco control policy are limited, inconsistent, and tied to the structural intricacies of domestic ownership and control of tobacco production and distribution. "[24], "The survey also showed that 81.6 percent of respondents were eager to stop smoking, or had heard of family members and friends who were considering kicking the habit. The director of our hospital smokes. The study of male and … In China’s ancient history, tobacco was heralded by military generals to have morale boosting powers and was crucial to the military. [32], Others may argue that since physicians influence the well-being of the general population, their high smoking rates serve as an unhealthy role model to Chinese citizens. As of 2018, a high percentage of the world population was covered by … [7] Under the conditions of the FCTC, China is required to completely ban "promotion and sponsorship on radio, television, print media and the Internet within five years," [8] as well as to prohibit tobacco companies from sponsoring international events or activities. More than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking. The latest amendment enlarges the smoking ban to include indoor workplaces, most public places including restaurants, Internet cafés, public lavatories, beaches and most public parks. This dossier presents a range of statistics and facts about smoking in Italy. Exposure to secondhand smoke causes nearly 41,000 deaths … 'I am delighted by such encouraging support from the public, it will help to promote legislation to control tobacco use,' [said] Jiang Yuan, vice-head of the tobacco control office under the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Because tobacco remains a significant source of both health risks and revenue for municipal and national governing entities,[6] specific Chinese tobacco control policies in different contexts may betray an overall position of ambivalence or inconsistency. In practice, it is often the case that only some government offices, schools, museums, some hospitals, and sports venues effectively function as smoke-free areas. This measure was intended to bring much-needed revenue to local enterprise; quotas were issued by county authorities to offices under its jurisdiction, which in turn were fined if they failed to consume the demanded quota of cigarettes, or if they were found purchasing other brands of tobacco products. Furthermore, physicians in particular may resort to tobacco as a coping mechanism to deal with the day-to-day stress that is associated with long work hours and difficult patient interactions. In Chinese culture, smoking is connected to masculine identity as a social activity that is practiced among men to promote feelings of acceptance and brotherhood, which explains why more Chinese male doctors smoke than females. Smoking causes 1 in 5 deaths in the US annually. The new ban will be run as a pilot project under the joint auspices of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease(UNION). The party-secretary smokes. In light of its preparations to host the 2010 World Expo, the city of Shanghai had recently heightened its anti-smoking legislation. On May 29, 2007, the Ministry released a report (2007 年中国控制吸烟报告—The 2007 China Smoking Control Report) detailing alarming levels of secondhand smoke exposure (affecting over 540 million Chinese citizens), recommendations for legislation to reduce harm from secondhand smoke, and the feasibility of implementing public smoking bans based upon polling data. The study warns that if current smoking rates in China prevail, two million … [30], As of 2014, two thirds of Chinese men smoked. [29] Fewer smokers also believed that physicians should serve as role models for their patients and that indoor smoking in hospitals should be prohibited. According to a report by the Fudan University Media and Public Opinion Research Center, 93.5% of the 509 people they interviewed supported a smoking ban at all Shanghai Expo 2010 pavilions and also felt that smoking should not be allowed in restaurants or shopping centers near the Expo area. According to one citizen that the public health experts from Fudan interviewed, "Smoking has been banned in public places in several countries. [35] China also remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and the United States) in total number of female smokers, although these three countries accounted for only 27.3% of the world's female smokers, indicating that the tobacco epidemic is less geographically concentrated for women than for men.[35]. 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