- Numerous dendrites to pass information to neighbouring nerve cells. The nerves cells are rather long which enables communication with distant body parts. To allow them to do this they have multiple adaptations: - A long axon to carry information over long distances. The main portion of the neuron is the cell body. Cells of the nervous system, called nerve cells or neurons, are specialized to carry "messages" through an electrochemical process.The human brain has approximately 86 billion neurons. The neuron is the nerve cell. Nerve cells are made of cell bodies, axons and dendrites. - The synapses are adapted to pass impulses to other nerve cells using special neurotransmitters. Nerve cell have very long axons which can take the message a very long way before passing it on to the next cell, this makes it quicker. The above example is a very general description. The BBC reveals that both types of fibers reach a maximum length of one meter. Fibers called dendrites transmit electrical impulses to the cell body, and axon fibers collect the impulses from the body and transmit them toward the next cell in the given neural pathway. Nerve Cell Many nerve cells are of the basic type illustrated above. Nerve Cell Adaptation. Some kind of stimulus triggers an electric discharge of the cell which is analogous to the discharge of a capacitor.This produces an electrical pulse on the order of 50-70 millivolts called an action potential.The electrical impulse propagates down the fiber-like extension of the nerve cell (the axon). Myelin surrounding the axon of a neuron acts as an insulator. Protruding from the cell body are one or more short extensions called dendrites and one long extension called the axon. Answer (1 of 3): They have very long axons which can take the message a very long way before passing it onto the next cell, this makes it quicker. Nerve cells transmit electrical impulses around the body. Neural adaptation is the change in neuronal responses due to preceding stimulation of the cell. Types of Neurons (Nerve Cells) The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Their job is to process information and maintain the nerve cell by producing proteins. Their job is to carry information away from cell bodies. For example, if a hand is rested on a table, the table's surface is immediately felt against the skin. (Approximately 12 billion neurons exist in the human body, the great majority of them in the brain and spinal cord.) The adaptations of a nerve cell are dendrites with receptor proteins, an axon, myelin, synaptic terminals and neurotransmitters. McCool, K.H. Axons are long, threadlike structures covered with a layer of fat. Cell Injury , Cell Death, and Adaptations Ch1. 2.10.3.8 Adaptation. Because adaptation effects are often profound at both the neural and perceptual levels, it has been widely used as a tool to probe the neuronal signals underlying perception. 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